This is a (hopefully) complete list of the automatic rifles used by the Wehrmacht, compiled by Antonio Pena with additional info from the other members of the forum.

Caliber with * are Kurz 7.92x33 the others are the common German cartridge 7.92x57

German Weapons
7.92 Vollmer Selbstladegewehr 29 Projected in 1929, not adopted by the Reichswehr
7.92 mm Mauser Gewehr 35 Developed as a private venture in 1935, not accepted for service. Two versions S and M
7.92 mm Maschinenkarabiner M35 Vollmer Developed also as private venture in 1935, version Typ A 35/II follows in 1938 and Typ A 35/III in 1939
7.92 mm Gewehr 41 (W) Walther self-loading rifle adopted as standard in 1942
7.92 mm Gewehr 41 (M) Mauser design tested in 1941, not accepted for service
7.92 mm Gewehr 43 Modification of G 41 (W) to gas-operated
7.92 mm Karabiner 43 Shorter version of G 43, introduced in 1944
7.92* mm MaschinenKarabiner 42 (H) Designed by Hugo Schmeisser. Accepted after troop trials in 1943, about 8000 produced, served as prototype to MP 43.
7.92* mm MaschinenKarabiner 42 (W) After combat trials not accepted for service
7.92* mm Maschinenpistole 43 Evolved from Mkb 42 (H) First series completed in July 43, First combat use in Esatern Front.
7.92* mm Maschinenpistole 43/1 Variant of MP 43 with provision for an screw-on grenade launcher
7.92*mm Maschinenpistole 44 Name of MP 43 altered in the spring of 1944
7.92* mm Sturmgewehr 44 New name for the MP 44, no changes in design
7.92 mm Gerät 06 (H) Mauser Developed as private venture in 1942-43
7.92* mm Sturmgewehr 45 Experimental lightweight selective-fire weapon, with roller-locked retarded blowback system, also known as MP 45 (M) only prototypes bulit prior to end of war. Forefunner of the Spanish CETME 58.
7.92* mm Volkssturmgewehr 1-5 Intended as a cheap and mass produced self-loading weapon. First series completed in late 44.
7.92 mm Fallschirmjägergewehr 42 Evolved by Rheinmetall from a Luftwaffe requirement. Accepted for service in 1942.

Captured Weapons
7.62 mm Selbstladegewehr 257 (r) Former russian AVS-36
7.62 mm Selbstladegewehr 258 (r) Former russian SVT-38
7.62 mm Selbstladegewehr 259 (r) Former russian SVT-40
7.62 mm Selbstladegewehr 251 (a) Former American Rifle, caliber.30, M1 (Garand)
7.62 mm Selbstladegewehr 310 (f) Former french Fusil Mitrailleur RSC Mle 1918
7.62 mm Selbstladekarabiner 455 (a) Former American Carbine, Caliber.30, M1

Older Weapons not used in WW2
7.92 mm Selbstlader-Karabiner Mauser Made in 1916 and used in WW 1
7 mm Flieger-Selbstlader-Karabiner 15 (Mondragon) Former Mondragon rifles built in Switzerland and used in WW 1